THE COMMON SCHOOL ARITHMETIC: COMBINING ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS; ADAPTED TO THE BEST MODE OF INSTRUCTION IN THE ELEMENTS OF WRITTEN ARITHMETIC. BY JAMES S. EATON, M. A., INSTRUCTOR IN PHILLIPS ACADEMY, ANDOVER, AND AUTHOR OF EASY LESSONS IN MENTAL ARITHMETIC" AND A TREATISE ON WRITTEN ARITHMETIC." BOSTON: 23 HAWLEY STREET, LIBRARY! EATON AND BRADBURY'S MATHEMATICAL SERIES. Used with unexumpled success in the best Schools and Academies in the Country EATON'S PRIMARY ARITHMETIC. Eaton's INTELLECTUAL ARITHMETIC. BRADBURY'S ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA. BRADBURY's Eaton's PRACTICAL ARITHMETIC, combining oral and written work. (Just published.) Copyright by JAMES S. Eaton, 1863. PREFACE. There is a large class of pupils whose limited time renders it impossible for them to pursue an extended mathematical course. The author, in accordance with his original intention to prepare a series of text-books in Arithmetic, has now endeavored to adapt this work to the wants of this class of pupils. With this purpose in view, the simple, elementary, practical principles of the science are more fully presented than in his larger work, while the more intricate and less important parts have been treated more briefly or entirely omitted. A corresponding change in the character of the examples has also been made. As in the larger work, so here, constant attention has been paid to the brevity, simplicity, perspicuity, and accuracy of expression; and no effort has been spared in the endeavor to render the mechanical execution appropriate and attractive. Definitions, tables, and explanations of signs have been distributed through the book where their aid is needed, to enable the pupil to learn them more readily than when they are presented collectively. Nearly all the examples have been prepared for this book, and are different from those of the larger work; still, to secure uniformity of language (a matter of great importance, as every experienced teacher knows), the leading examples in the several subjects, the definitions and rules, with few exceptions, have been intentionally retained with but little modification. Articles on United States Money, Percentage, Stocks and Bonds, Custom House Business, and Exchange have been prepared for this book; and all the principles requisite for a practical business life have been presented in a simple, intelligible, attractive manner, and with sufficient minuteness and fullness and a due regard to logical arrangement. The methods employed are those used by business men, and the examples are clearly stated and of a practical character. It is believed that this work contains that treatment of commercial arithmetic which is the latest and most approved. Those pupils who wish to finish written arithmetic without taking a higher work will find this book complete in itself, sufficient to lead to higher mathematics, and enough for all ordinary purposes. Brief, suggestive questions have been placed at the bottom of the page, designed in no way to interfere with the free, original questioning which every teacher will adopt for himself, but merely to aid the young and inexperienced pupil in fixing his attention upon the more important parts of the subject. Here, as in the larger work, some of the answers to examples have been given to inspire confidence in the learner, and others are omitted to secure the discipline resulting from proving the operations, a discipline and a benefit which the pupil should not forego nor the teacher neglect. An edition of this book is also published with answers. This work contains a full exposition of the Metric System of Weights and Measures, prepared by H. A. Newton, Professor of Mathematics, Yale College. It also contains an important chapter on Government Securities. The thanks of the author are due Judah Dana, Esq., of Rutland, Vt., for the rule for annual interest on page 202. 1 General Principles of Fractions 92 To Reduce a Fraction of a Higher Mixed and Whole Numbers Reduced to Denomination to one of a Lower . 93 To Reduce a Fraction of a Lower De- Improper Fractions Reduced to Whole nomination to one of a Higher 112 95 To Reduce a Fraction of a Higher De- Fraction Reduced to Lower Terms 95 nomination to Whole Numbers of Fraction Multipied by an Integer 96 Lower Denominations Fraction Divided by an Integer 98 To Reduce Whole Numbers of Lower Fraction Multiplied by a Fraction 100 Denominations to a Fraction of a Fraction Divided by a Fraction Complex Fractions made Simple 107 Subtraction of Fractions . |