- 1 Why is a buffer used for the restriction digest?
- 2 Why do I see additional DNA bands on my gel after a restriction digest?
- 3 What is the purpose of restriction enzyme digestion?
- 4 What is the purpose of adding sample dye to the restriction digest reactions before loading them into the gel?
- 5 How can I improve my digestive restrictions?
- 6 What is the definition of 1 unit of restriction enzyme?
- 7 What happens if you add too much restriction enzyme?
- 8 What does incomplete digestion look like on a gel?
- 9 Why are there multiple bands on the undigested vector?
- 10 What enzyme digests DNA?
- 11 What does ice do to enzymatic activity?
- 12 What is a restriction enzyme and what does it do?
- 13 Which lane shows a digest with BamHI only?
- 14 Why is mRNA so difficult to see on a gel?
- 15 Why do we use gel loading solution?
Why is a buffer used for the restriction digest?
Buffers containing low concentrations of EDTA (1mM) are often used to protect DNA from nuclease degradation during storage, but EDTA can interfere with restriction enzyme digestion if the final concentration in the reaction is too high.
Why do I see additional DNA bands on my gel after a restriction digest?
You need to compare your digestion to the expected DNA banding pattern. If the bands in both lanes are similar to the expected pattern and the additional bands are limited to spaces within the upper and lower bands of the expected pattern, the digestion is incomplete (partial).
What is the purpose of restriction enzyme digestion?
Restriction digestion is usually used to prepare a DNA fragment for subsequence molecular cloning, as the procedure allows fragments of DNA to be pieced together like building blocks via ligation.
What is the purpose of adding sample dye to the restriction digest reactions before loading them into the gel?
Loading the gel To make this process easier, we mix the samples with a blue dye and glycerol. The dye migrates before all of the DNA and we can use this to tell when to stop running the gel. The glycerol increases the density of the sample so that it sinks to the bottom of the well on loading.
How can I improve my digestive restrictions?
Use no more than the recommended enzyme amount (e.g., 10 units of enzyme per microgram of DNA). Reduce the amount of enzyme in the reaction, if necessary. Avoid prolonged incubation of the digestion reaction. Use the recommended reaction buffer.
What is the definition of 1 unit of restriction enzyme?
One unit of restriction endonuclease activity is defined as the amount of enzyme required to produce a complete digest of 1 µg of substrate DNA (or fragments) in a total reaction volume of 50 µl in 60 minutes under optimal assay conditions as stated for each restriction endonuclease.
What happens if you add too much restriction enzyme?
Incomplete digestion may occur when too much or too little enzyme is used. The presence of contaminants in the DNA sample can inhibit the enzymes, also resulting in incomplete digestion.
What does incomplete digestion look like on a gel?
Incomplete digestion results in additional bands above the expected bands on a gel. These bands disappear when the incubation time or amount of enzyme is increased, as seen when comparing sample in lanes 2 and 3 to the completely digested sample in lane 4 (Figure 8).
Why are there multiple bands on the undigested vector?
However, it is likely that two or three bands will appear in the undigested plasmid lanes. The reason for this is that plasmids isolated from cells exist in several forms. If two plasmids are linked, the multimer will be twice as large as a single plasmid and will migrate very slowly through the gel.
What enzyme digests DNA?
Restriction Digestion is the process of cutting DNA molecules into smaller pieces with special enzymes called Restriction Endonucleases (sometimes just called Restriction Enzymes or RE’s).
What does ice do to enzymatic activity?
Keeping the solution on ice makes the enzyme’s activity decrease more slowly, giving you more time to do the experiment. If it is kept on ice, the solution should remain very active for 2 to 3 hours.
What is a restriction enzyme and what does it do?
A restriction enzyme is an enzyme isolated from bacteria that cuts DNA molecules at specific sequences. The isolation of these enzymes was critical to the development of recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology and genetic engineering.
Which lane shows a digest with BamHI only?
3. Which lane shows a digest with BamHI only? BamHI would make cuts at the three BamHI restriction sites, producing DNA fragments of 2kB, 6kB, and 12kB (4kb + 8kb). Therefore, Gel lane III shows the digest with BamHI only.
Why is mRNA so difficult to see on a gel?
That is why it is difficult to see it in gel due to the lower percentage and thats why we analyse the RNA integrity by looking at the three rRNA bands. Also, every gene forms a different sized mRNA, so the mRNA will be present in different bands all over the lane in the gel but you cannot see it.
Why do we use gel loading solution?
Gel loading solution is used as a tracking dye during electrophoresis. The dyes have a slight negative charge and will migrate the same direction as DNA, allowing the user to monitor the progress of molecules moving through the gel. The rate of migration varies with gel composition.